With an eye towards reforming assessment practices, Jon Dron compiles a list of principles associated with assessment:
- The primary purpose of assessment is to help the learner to improve their learning. All assessment should be formative.
- Assessment without feedback (teacher, peer, machine, self) is
judgement, not assessment, pointless.
- Ideally, feedback should be direct and immediate or, at least, as prompt as possible.
- Feedback should only ever relate to what has been done, never the doer.
- No criticism should ever be made without also at least outlining steps that might be taken to improve on it.
- Grades (with some very rare minor exceptions where the grade is intrinsic to the activity, such as some gaming scenarios or, arguably, objective single-answer quizzes with T/F answers) are not feedback.
- Assessment should never ever be used to reward or punish particular prior learning behaviours (e.g. use of exams to encourage revision, grades as goals, marks for participation, etc) .
- Students should be able to choose how, when and on what they are assessed.
- Where possible, students should participate in the assessment of themselves and others.
- Assessment should help the teacher to understand the needs, interests, skills, and gaps in knowledge of their students, and should be used to help to improve teaching.
- Assessment is a way to show learners that we care about their learning.
He elaborates on these further in regards to credentials and objective quizzes. Dron believes that students should have autonomy when it comes to assessment and the best model for this is the creation of a portfolio of evidence.
A portfolio of evidence, including a reflective commentary, is usually going to be the backbone of any fair, humane, effective assessment … It is worth noting that, unlike written exams and their ilk, such methods are actually fun for all concerned, albeit that the pleasure comes from solving problems and overcoming challenges, so it is seldom easy.
This is a useful provocation in regards to assessment and feedback. It is also interesting to think about in regards to things like open badeges.