In this interaction, the online reader becomes the victim as they are flooded by incoming traffic, or information, originating from many different sources. Trying to stop this attack, or identify the source is simply impossible. Trying to identify truth in a topic is a challenge as the reader is forced to negotiate subtle nuances in truth and fiction.
The reader would ultimately look at the vast amount of information coming at them on a topic from multiple sides, not know what is true, and give up. They ultimately decide that “nothing is true” and head back to their personal belief sets since it is a known quantity and believable.
Ian O’Byrne compares the challenge of critical evaluation with that of a DDOS attack, suggesting that put under enough pressure users often simply wave the white flag.